Extreme Weather, Health, and Communities

Interdisciplinary Engagement Strategies
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Sheila Lakshmi Steinberg
781 g
241x160x28 mm
Springer Natural Hazards

Dr. Sheila Lakshmi Steinberg is aProfessor of Social and Environmental Sciences at Brandman University-ChapmanUniversity System, Irvine, CA.  The themethroughout her research is examining people and their relationship to space andplace.Steinberg's research interests includeenvironmental sociology, research methods, social inequality, community,geospatial research (GIS) and policy. Sheila has always been interested in theweather and climate from living in so many different parts of the U.S.Recently, she co-authored a book entitled GIS Research Methods: Incorporating Spatial Perspectives for Esri Pressand has also co-authored a chapter on this topic entitled"Geospatial Analysis Technology and Social Science Research" in the Handbookof Emergent Technologies, Sharlene Hesse-Biber, Editor, Oxford UniversityPress 2011.  In 2006, she co-authored a book for Sage Publicationsentitled, GIS for the Social Sciences: Investigating Space and Place. In2013, she joined Brandman University where she now teaches courses related tosocial and environmental sciences.

William A. Sprigg, Ph.D., Yale University is ResearchProfessor Emeritus, University of Arizona, the current and founding director ofthe World Meteorological Organization's Pan-America Center for airborne dustforecasting in Barbados, and research associate of the Public Health Institutein California. He is a member of the American Meteorological Society's Board onEnvironment & Health, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Committee for DigitalEarth Observations, and the Serbian Program of Basic Research, EnvironmentalProtection and Climate Change. Former positions includeDistinguished Professor at California's Chapman University, Director, U.S.National Research Council Board on Atmospheric Science and Climate, head of theU.S. National Climate Program Office, and architect of the U.S. ClimateProgram. He participated in the first Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange. Authoring a number of technical publications on climate and, mostrecently, on his current research interests, airborne dust and human health,Dr. Sprigg continues his interests in interdisciplinary research and sciencepolicy.

This volume presents a unique interdisciplinary approach, drawing on expertise in both the natural and social sciences. A primary goal is to present a scientific and socially integrated perspective on place-based community engagement, extreme weather, and health. Each year extreme weather is leading to natural disasters around the world and exerting huge social and health costs. The International Monetary Fund (2012) estimates that since 2010, 700 worldwide natural disasters have affected more than 450 million people around the globe. The best coping strategy for extreme weather and environmental change is a strong offense. Communities armed with a spatial understanding of their resources, risks, strengths, weaknesses, community capabilities, and social networks will have the best chance of reducing losses and achieving a better outcome when extreme weather and disaster strikes.
Unique, interdisciplinary approach to social dimensions of meteorology, health and environment

Introduction.- Extreme Weather and the World.- The Purpose of the Book.- ThePower of "Interdisciplinary".- Superstorm Sandy: a Game Changer?.- Introduction.-New Jersey at a Glance.- Historic Mid-Atlantic Storms.- Tropical storms andhurricanes.- Nor'easter.- Historic storms.- Recent storms.- Sandy's Fury.- Genesisand early days.- New Jersey prepares.- New Jersey in the cross hairs.- Stormday: Monday morning.- Storm day: afternoon.- Storm day: evening landfall.- Sandy'sAftermath.- Lessons learned.- Seemingly slight differences can have majorconsequences.- Storm conditions donot change at a steady pace.- Storms stronger than Sandy are within the realmof possibility.- Do not fully rely on storms of the past to provide a look tothe future.- Heed weather forecasts.- Regional infrastructure is too vulnerablein severe storm conditions.- Messaging needs improvement.- Do not rely solelyon lessons from Sandy.- Conclusion - A Game Changer?.- Extreme Weather:Politics and Public Communication.- Introduction.- Blizzards BringCooperation.- The Interconnectedness of U.S. Government Agencies.- Politicsand Extreme Weather: Historical Context.- New York City.- Chicago.- Denver.-Fort Worth.- Extreme Weather Campaign/Political Influences.- Tornadoesand Politics.- Contemporary Public Communication Methods: The Role of SocialMedia.- Public Communication Theories.- Knowledge Gap Theory.- Uses andGratifications Theory.- Conclusion.- Best Practices for Extreme WeatherCommunication.- Dust Storms, Human Health and a Global Early Warning System.- GlobalDust-Health Early Warning System (D-HEWS) - The Motive.- Meningitis.- Asthma.- Valley Fever.- Interviewswith Valley Fever Sufferers.- Acquired Insights for a Valley Fever EarlyWarning System.- This Chapter's Focus on Airborne Dust and Human Health.- TheDust-Health Challenge.- Dust-Health Early Warning System - The Means.- AtmosphericDust Modeling.- Model Forecast and Simulation Verification.- Satellite-based Remote Sensing.- Surface-BasedRemote Sensing and In-Situ Observations.- Upward Looking Remote Sensing.-In-Situ Dust Measurements and Monitoring.- Global Partners in Public HealthApplications: Dust-Health Early Warning System - The Opportunity.- A ConceptualFramework.- Global Dust Movement.- Regional and Local Dust Exposure.- TransdisciplinaryInformation Exchange (TIE).- Implementation.- Conclusions: Best Practices inTechnology Transfer, Capacity Building, Training and Education.- InterdisciplinaryEngagement of People and Place around ExtremeWeather.- Introduction.- Extreme Weather and Changing Patterns.- ReligiousLeaders Note Environmental Changes.- Extreme Weather and Places.- ExtremeWeather Community Health Model.- Description of Extreme Weather CommunityHealth Model.- Model Flow.- Extreme Weather Interdisciplinary CommunityEngagement.- What is engagement?.- Why Interdisciplinary?.- Place.- SociospatialStrategies for Place-Based Policy.- Understanding People Community/Culture.- HowContext (Space or Proximity) Influences Outcome.- Knowledge about the LocalEnvironment.- Geographies and Community Type.- Importance of communityengagement.- Interdisciplinary Teaming for engagement.- Place-basedInterdisciplinary Approaches for Extreme Weather Engagement.- Navigating localgeographies.- Interaction, Establish Consistent & Ongoing Interaction.- Knowyour Culture/Community.- UnderstandGeneral Population and Sub-populations.- Establish Trust.- Engage UsingInterdisciplinary Teams with Different Sectors of the Community.- Create Two-wayPlace-Based Communication.- Choosing  AReasonable Plan for Stakeholders.- Conclusion.- Engaging Communities to Assessthe Health Effects of Extreme Weather in the Arctic.- The Setting:  The physical landscape.- Climate Change inAlaska:  Observed and Expected Changes.- Rising Temperatures.- Warming Oceans.- DecreasedFreshwater Ice and Snow Cover.- Thawing Permafrost.- Changes in Extremes.- TheSetting: The cultural landscape.- Climate Change, Health Impacts on ArcticCommunities.- Findings and Strange Weather Patterns.- Threats to LocalLifestyle.- Changing Food Sources.- Environmental Changes/Challenges to Health.-Conclusions.- Refining the Process of Science Support for Communities aroundExtreme Weather Events and Climate Impacts.- Introduction.- Community andUnderstanding a Place.- Challenges of Scientists' Community Engagement forAdaptation.- Variety of environmental change signals.- Changing LouisianaEnvironments.- Community responses.- Research Methods.- Community Background.- AdaptationCollaboration.- Participatory Action Research (PAR).- Science and TraditionalEcological Knowledge (Sci-TEK).- Effective Engagement Strategies.- FirstPeoples' Conservation Council  (FPCC)2012.- Community Observations and Stories about Changing Environments.- AScientists' Perspective.- Changing Environments/Changing Food Sources.- Observationson Health and Changing Environments.- A Proposal for Collaboration GoingForward: Climate Change, Regional Science and Community Task Forces.- Value ofCo-Location.- Preparation of participants - scientists and community residents.-Content of science shared and scenario planning.- Using Stories for sciencecommunication.- Conclusions and Lessons Learned: How to Engage Effectively withCommunities.- Establish Different Types of Collaboration.- Build Capacitythrough Collaboration.- Create Collaborations Now.- Increase Capacity/MitigateVulnerability to Extreme Weather.- Build Collaboration on Trust and Time.- ShareCollaboration Strategies with Scientists.- Embrace Different Knowledge Types.-Embrace Action Research Models.- Acknowledgement.- Reducing Vulnerability toExtreme Heat through Interdisciplinary Research and Stakeholder Engagement.- Introduction.-Extreme heat vulnerability: an interdisciplinary perspective.- Vulnerability.- Interdisciplinaryresearch on extreme heat: the SIMMER project.- Stakeholder engagement.- Stakeholders' knowledge, attitudes,and practices with regard to extreme heat in Houston.- StakeholderIdentification.- The Online Stakeholder Survey.- Extreme Heat Preparedness andResponse in Houston: Co-production of Knowledge.- Disseminating ResearchResults to Stakeholders.- Summary and Best Practices for Stakeholder Engagement.-Decision-Maker Engagement.- Dual Engagement Approach.- Early StakeholderInvolvement.- Stakeholder Adaptive Capacity.- Relevance to Local Needs.- SociospatialModeling for climate-based emergencies: Extreme Heat Vulnerability.- Introduction.-Social Vulnerability.- Age.- Education.- Income.- Physical Vulnerability.- HeatVulnerability.- Micro-UHI.- Built-up environment.- Vegetation.- TemperatureWarnings.- Social-Spatial vulnerability.- Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI).- ExtremeHeat Vulnerability Index.- Statistical Modelling.- Heat Contributing MortalityCauses.- Principal Component Analysis Findings.- Chicago Heat Wave.- DataHindrance.- Satellite Data.- Mitigation Practices - How to use Vulnerabilitymodels to improve health.- EHVI Mitigation Examples - Practiced and Theoretical.-Cooling Center Assessment.- Climate Region Considerations.- Residences.- ConcludingRemarks.- Preventative Practices to reduce Heat impacts on Community Health.- Heatmitigation is multidisciplinary.- Heat waves are a local phenomena.- Heat wavevulnerability evolves with the population and location.- Mitigation is a localproblem and requires local response.- Droughtand Health in the Context of Public Engagement.- Introduction.- What isDrought?.- Drought Impacts.- Water Quality and Water Quantity Impacts.- MentalHealth and Stress Impacts.- Dust and Windblown Agents.- Wildlife Intrusion.- DroughtRisk Management.- Droughts and Climate Change.- Engagement Strategies.- CommunityCapitals Framework.- Drought Scenario Exercises and Tournaments.- Case Study:Greater Horn of Africa.- Case Study: Community Capitals Framework and DroughtImpact Assessment.- California.- Case Study: Missouri River Basin.- MRB RDEWSTribal Activities.- Conclusions.- Extreme Weather: Mental Health Challenges and Community ResponseStrategies.- Introduction.- Extreme Weatherand India.- Extreme Weather and Mental Health.- Impacts of Extreme Weather Events on Communities.- Floods.- Cyclones.- Drought.- Displacement dueto Extreme Weather Events.- ExtremeWeather Events and Community Engagement.- Best Practices for ExtremeWeather Community Engagement.- Enhancing Preparedness, Reducing Vulnerabilitiesand Building Resilience.- Importanceof  Early Warnings, Timely Evacuation,and Emergency Planning.- Creating Awareness through InterdisciplinaryTeaming.- Knowledge Sharing.- Land useplanning.- Regional Cooperation.- Best Practices for Mental Health Care.- Extreme Winter:Weaving Weather and Climate into a Narrative through Laura Ingalls Wilder.- AFamous Mid-American Author.- Setting the Stage for the Hard Winter.- Overviewof the Hard Winter of 1880-1881.- Meteorological Causes and Context of the HardWinter of 1880-1881.- Climate Patterns During the Winter of 1880-1881.- Pioneersand Modernistas:  Information and ImpactsThen and Now.- Vulnerability during Extreme Winter Weather.- Narratives andStories as a Communication Tool.- The Wilder Weather Narrative.- Testing theWilder Weather Narrative.- Moral of the Story.- Best Practices: UsingNarratives for Weather and Climate Engagement.- The Air We Breathe: How ExtremeWeather Conditions Harm Us.- The Connection Between Extreme Weather and Health.-Airborne Particulates.- Role of Gaseous Pollutants.- Geographical Concerns.- AirPollution and Respiratory Disease.- Air Quality and the Immune System.- Climateand Extreme Weather and Health.- Community Engagement Strategies.- Strategiesfor Future Health Communication.- Human Response to and Consequences of the May22, 2011, Joplin Tornado.- Introduction.- Background.- Health and SafetyImpacts.- The NIST Investigation.- Chapter Overview.- Data Collection andAnalysis using Spatially Integrated, Multidisciplinary Methods.- Introduction.-Tornado Wind Field.- Design Practices and Building Damage.- Fatalities andInjuries.- Emergency Communications and Public Response.- Summary.- Analysisand Results of Fatalities/Injuries and Discussion of Health and SafetyImpacts.- Fatalities that Occurred Outside ofBuildings.- Spatial Analysis.- Fatalities that Occurred Inside of Structures.- Critical Buildings.- Commercial Buildings.- ResidentialBuildings.- Summary.- ConceptualModel of Protective-Action Decision-Making; A Path to Best Practices.- Protection is Unnecessary.- Unawareness.- No Personal RiskPerceived.- Protective Action is Necessary.- Recommendations and FutureWork.- Best Practices and Recommendations for Human Health and CommunityEngagement.- Future Research.- Overall Summary.- Approaches for Building Community Resilienceto Extreme Heat.- Introduction.- Understanding vulnerability to extreme heat.- Healthrisks from extreme heat.- Individual and community level factors that increasevulnerability.- Role of Space and Place.- Vulnerability associated with climatechange, heat and air quality.- Adapting to the health impacts of climate change.-Actions to protect people from extreme heat events.- Health Canada'sapproach to increasing heat-health resiliency and preparing Canadians forclimate change.- Developing heat alert andresponse systems to protect health.- Supporting heat-health adaptation through proactive communication andoutreach.- Health Canada's heat-health educationand outreach approach.- CASE STUDY- Harmonizing heat-health messaging inOntario.- Testing HARS to increase community preparedness for extreme heatevents.- Health Canada's efforts to support heat-health preparedness throughtable-top exercises.- CASE STUDY - Extreme heat and health table-top exercisein the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba.- Preventative approach to building heatresiliency by modifying the built environment.- Development of information andtools at Health Canada to mitigate the urban heat island.- CASE STUDY -Measures to reduce the urban heat island effect in Windsor, Ontario.- Multi-sectorcollaboration on heat-health adaptation to achieve health co-benefits.- CASESTUDY -Toolkit for increasing the resiliency of health care facilities toclimate change impacts including extreme heat events.- Lessons for supportingheat-health adaptation and building resiliency to other climate changeimpacts.- Addressing vulnerability factors for effective heat-health adaptation.