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Critical Findings in Neuroradiology

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Renato Hoffmann Nunes
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This book provides clear guidance as to which neuroradiological findings in ill or injured patients should be immediately communicated by radiologists and trainees to the emergency room and referring physicians in order to facilitate key decisions and eliminate preventable errors. It offers a practical and illustrative approach that identifies what to look for and how to report it and describes the required follow-up and the most common differential diagnoses of the main critical findings in neuroradiology. The book is distinctive in being written from a “critical findings perspective”, which makes its content more practical and memorable than that of a standard Emergency Neuroradiology textbook. It also illustrates the value of developing algorithmic approaches to report and communicate critical findings based on lists. While the book will appeal to a broad and variable audience, it is especially addressed to radiology training programs and will be a “must read” for residents and fellows in training.

Part I – Adult Brain

1. Pneumocephalus including tension pneumocephalus

2. Epidural hematoma

3. Subdural hematoma

4. Extra axial hygromas and other fluid collections

5. Intracerebral hemorrhage

6. Intracerebellar hemorrhage

7. Active Bleeding as seen by the “spot and swirl signs”

8. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and aneurysms

9. Vascular Malformations

10. Venous Thrombosis

11. Dural Fistula

12. Ischemic Stroke

13. Vascular Dissection

14. Brain Death

15. Mass Effect and Brain Herniations

16. Cerebral Edema

17. Meningitis, Empyema and Brain Abscess

18. Herpes encephalitis

19. Retained Foreign Body

20. Sinking Skin-Flap Syndrome

21. Intracranial hypotension


Part II – Adult Spine

22. Spinal Cord Infarct

23. Hemorrhage: extra medullary, extradural, and intramedullary

24. Spinal Dural Fistula

25. Spinal Cord Compression


Traumatic spinal cord injuries

27. Spinal Ligamentous Injury

28. Acute vertebral traumatic fractures

29. Acute pathologic vertebral fractures

30. Misplaced Hardware

Part III – Adult Head and Neck

31. Intraocular Hematoma - Orbital Injury

32. Penetrating Trauma

33. Airway Compromise

34. Lemiere Syndrome

35. Ludwig’s angiomas

36. External Malignant Otitis


Extracranial artery dissections

38. Laryngeal fracture


Invasive Fungal Sinusitis

40. Apical petrositis.

Part IV – Pediatric Brain

1.    Skull fractures

2.    Extra axial fluid collections

3.    Child abuse

4.    Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

5.    Venous Thrombosis

6.    Ischemic Stroke

7.    Hypoxic - ischemic Injury<

8.    Mass Effect and Brain Herniations

9.    Meningitis, Empyema and Brain Abscess

10. Hydrocephalus and Shunt Malfunction

11. Posterior fossa tumors with acute hydrocephalus

Part V: - Pediatric Spine

12. SCIWORA including spinal Cord Infarct

13. Hemorrhage: extra medullary, extradural, and intramedullary

14. Spinal Cord Compression

15. Acute vertebral fractures

16. Ligament spine injuries

Part VI – Pediatric Head and Neck

17. Epiglottitis

18. Retropharyngeal Abscess

19. Pre septal orbital cellulitis

20. Post septal orbital cellulitis

41. Temporal bone infections including Bezold abscess.