Biological Conversion of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals
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Biological Conversion of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals

Explorations from Natural Utilization Systems
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Jianzhong Sun
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This book covers biomass modification to facilitate the industrial degradation processing and other characteristics of feedstocks and new technologies for the conversion of lignocelluloses into biofuels and other products.
This book is divided into two parts. The first covers biomass modification to facilitate the industrial degradation processing and other characteristics of feedstocks. These include reduction in the general recalcitrance of plant cell wall and downstream processing costs. The second focuses on cutting edge technologies for the conversion of lignocelluloses into biofuels and other products. It describes the most up-to-date advances in natural biomass utilization systems, such as wood-feeding termites and animals that efficiently degrade lignocellulosic substrates. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) integrates cellulase production and cellulose hydrolysis, with pentose and hexose fermentation in a single step. This replicates what happens in the digestive systems of animals, such as termites and cows, that effectively degrade lignocellulosic substrates. CBP has the potential to reduce production costs and lower capital investment whilst increasing conversion efficiency. Currently, there are no CBP-enabling micro-organisms suitable for industrial applications. Consequently, this book presents technologies which integrate the lignocellulolytic systems of insects and other animals to advance CBP strategy for cellulosic biofuels. It covers the progress made, and challenges faced, with the utilisation of gene, catalyst, and other unique mechanisms from cellulose-eating animals, as well as cutting-edge technologies developed to reduce the general recalcitrance of feedstocks for processing. This volume makes essential reading for academics and industrial groups concerned with overcoming the challenges inherent in the biological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals.
Chapter 1. Introduction; Part I: Biomass modification to reduce the recalcitrance of lignocellulose in processing; Chapter 2. Overview of lignocellulose: structure and chemistry; Chapter 3. Advances in the measurement/characterization of biomass structure; Chapter 4. Lignin modification to reduce the recalcitrance of biomass processing ; Chapter 5. Advances in genetic manipulations of plants for production of hydrolysis enzymes used in lignocellulosic bioethanol process; Chapter 6. The diversity of lignocellulosic biomass resources and their evaluations for biofuels and chemicals ; Part II: Biological conversion of biomass from the integration of natural biomass utilization systems; Chapter 7. Technologies to study plant biomass fermentation using the model bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans; Chapter 8. Lignocellulose degradation in termite symbiotic systems; Chapter 9. The functional gene resources from cellulose-feeding insects for novel catalysts; Chapter 10. Biological pre-treatment of biomass by wood-feeding termites; Chapter 11. Lignocellulolytic systems of wood-feeding insects and their potential for viable biofuels ; Chapter 12. Lignocellulolytic wood-feeding Cockroach - a forgotten treasure ; Chapter 13. Reversal design of natural biocatalyst systems for biomass conversion ; Chapter 14. The ruminant animal as a natural biomass conversion platform and a source of bioconversion agents; Chapter 15. Tipula abdominalis, an aquatic insect, provides microorganisms and enzymes with applications to the biofuels industry; Chapter 16. Cloning, Mutation and Over-expression of Lignocellulase Genes ; Chapter 17. Cellulose-dissolving systems and their effects on enzymatic hydrolysis; Chapter 18. What we can learn from the natural biomass utilization systems for developing the novel bioreactors; Chapter 19: Techno-economic Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Sugars using Various Pretreatment Technologies