Mathematics of Planet Earth (MPE) was started and continues to be consolidated as a collaboration of mathematical science organisations around the world. These organisations work together to tackle global environmental, social and economic problems using mathematics.This textbook introduces the fundamental topics of MPE to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics, physics and engineering while explaining their modern usages and operational connections. In particular, it discusses the links between partial differential equations, data assimilation, dynamical systems, mathematical modelling and numerical simulations and applies them to insightful examples.The text also complements advanced courses in geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) for meteorology, atmospheric science and oceanography. It links the fundamental scientific topics of GFD with their potential usage in applications of climate change and weather variability. The immediacy of examples provides an excellent introduction for experienced researchers interested in learning the scope and primary concepts of MPE.