The Jews and the Expansion of Europe to the West, 1450-1800
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The Jews and the Expansion of Europe to the West, 1450-1800

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ISBN-13:
9781782389767
Einband:
Web PDF
Seiten:
592
Autor:
Paolo Bernardini
Serie:
2, European Expansion & Global Interaction
eBook Typ:
PDF
eBook Format:
Web PDF
Kopierschutz:
Adobe DRM [Hard-DRM]
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

Jews and Judaism played a significant role in the history of the expansion of Europe to the west as well as in the history of the economic, social, and religious development of the New World. They played an important role in the discovery, colonization, and eventually exploitation of the resources of the New World. Alone among the European peoples who came to the Americas in the colonial period, Jews were dispersed throughout the hemisphere; indeed, they were the only cohesive European ethnic or religious group that lived under both Catholic and Protestant regimes, which makes their study particularly fruitful from a comparative perspective. As distinguished from other religious or ethnic minorities, the Jewish struggle was not only against an overpowering and fierce nature but also against the political regimes that ruled over the various colonies of the Americas and often looked unfavorably upon the establishment and tleration of Jewish communities in their own territory. Jews managed to survive and occasionally to flourish against all odds, and their history in the Americas is one of the more fascinating chapters in the early modern history of European expansion.

List of Illustrations

Preface
Norman Fiering


Introduction: A Milder Colonization: Jewish Expansion to the New World, and the New World in the Jewish Consciousness of the Early Modern Era
Paolo Bernardini


PART I: THE OLD NEWWORLD: IDEAS AND REPRESENTATIONS OF AMERICA IN EUROPEAN AND JEWISH CONSCIOUSNESS AND INTELLECTUAL HISTORY


Chapter 1. Biblical History and the Americas: The Legend of Solomon’s Ophir, 1492–1591
James Romm


Chapter 2. Knowledge of Newly Discovered Lands among Jewish Communities of Europe (from 1492 to the Thirty Years’ War)
Noah J. Efron


Chapter 3. Jewish Scientists and the Origin of Modern Navigation
Patricia Seed


Chapter 4. The Hope of the Netherlands: Menasseh ben Israel and the Dutch Idea of America
Benjamin Schmidt


Chapter 5. Israel in America: The Wanderings of the Lost Ten Tribes from Mikveigh Yisrael to Timothy McVeigh
David S. Katz


PART II: IDENTITY AT STAKE: CONCEALING, PRESERVING, AND RESHAPING JUDAISM AMONG THE CONVERSOS AND MARRANOS OF SPANISH AMERICA


Chapter 6. New Christian, Marrano, Jew
Robert Rowland


Chapter 7. Marrano Religiosity in Hispanic America in the Seventeenth Century
Nathan Wachtel


Chapter 8. Crypto-Jews and the Mexican Holy Office in the Seventeenth Century
Solange Alberro


Chapter 9. The Participation of New Christians and Crypto-Jews in the Conquest, Colonization, and Trade of Spanish America, 1521–1660
Eva Alexandra Uchmany


Chapter 10. Crypto-Jews and New Christians in Colonial Peru and Chile
Günter Böhm


PART III: THE LUSO-BRAZILIAN EXPERIENCE: JEWS IN PORTUGUESE LATIN AMERICA


Chapter 11. Marranos and the Inquisition: On the Gold Route in Minas Gerais, Brazil
Anita Novinsky


Chapter 12. Outcasts from the Kingdom: The Inquisition and the Banishment of New Christians to Brazil
Geraldo Pieroni


PART IV: FROM TOLERATION TO EXPULSION: IDENTITY,TRADE, AND STRUGGLE FOR SURVIVAL IN FRANCE AND CARIBBEAN FRENCH AMERICA


Chapter 13. The Portuguese Jewish Nation of Saint-Esprit-lès-Bayonne: The American Dimension
Gérard Nahon


Chapter 14. Atlantic Trade and Sephardim Merchants in Eighteenth-Century France: The Case of Bordeaux
Silvia Marzagalli


Chapter 15. Jewish Settlements in the French Colonies in the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Cayenne) and the “Black Code"
Mordechai Arbell


Chapter 16. New Christians/”New Whites”: Sephardic Jews, Free People of Color, and Citizenship in French Saint-Domingue, 1760–1789
John D. Garrigus


PART V: BLOSSOMING IN ANOTHERWORLD: THE JEWS AND THE JEWISH COMMUNITIES IN DUTCH AMERICA


Chapter 17. The Jews of Dutch America
Jonathan I. Israel


Chapter 18. The Jews in Suriname and Curaçao
Wim Klooster


Chapter 19. An Atlantic Perspective on the Jewish Struggle for Rights and Opportunities in Brazil, New Netherland, and New York
James Homer Williams


Chapter 20. Antecedents and Remnants of Jodensavanne: The Synagogues and Cemeteries of the First Permanent Plantation Settlement of New World Jews
Rachel Frankel


PART VI: “THE BROKERS OF THEWORLD”: AMERICAN JEWS, NEW CHRISTIANS, AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE


Chapter 21. Jews and New Christians in the Atlantic Slave Trade
Seymour Drescher


Chapter 22. New Christians and Jews in the Sugar Trade, 1550–1750: Two Centuries of Development of the Atlantic Economy
James C. Boyajian


Chapter 23. New Christians as Sugar Cultivators and Traders in the Portuguese Atlantic, 1450–1800
Ernst Pijning


Chapter 24. The Jewish Moment and the Two Expansion Systems in the Atlantic, 1580–1650
Pieter Emmer


PART VII: THE JEWS IN COLONIAL BRITISH AMERICA


Chapter 25. The Jews in British America
Jonathan D. Sarna


Notes on Contributors
Name Index
Place Index
Subject Index