The Spanish-American War
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The Spanish-American War

A Documentary History with Commentaries
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ISBN-13:
9781611475753
Seiten:
302
Autor:
Brad K. Berner
eBook Typ:
Adobe Digital Editions
Kopierschutz:
Adobe DRM [Hard-DRM]
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

This documentary history is intended for specialist and non-specialist alike. The introductions to the book’s sections, together with introductions to each document, provide a general history of the war. The contents cover the pre-war, war, and post-war periods in Cuba, Guam, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Spain, the Philippines, and the United States. Included are documents on the main battles and diplomatic history of the war, along with internal situations in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Spain, the Philippines, and the United States.
This documentary history is intended for specialist and non-specialist alike. The introductions to the book’s sections, together with introductions to each document, provide a general history of the war. The contents cover the pre-war, war, and post-war periods in Cuba, Guam, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Spain, the Philippines, and the United States. Included are documents on the main battles and diplomatic history of the war, along with internal situations in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Spain, the Philippines, and the United States. Of particular interest is the section on Black Americans’ views and participation in the war, and the section on the views of many participants, military and non-military.
CONTENTS
Acknowledgments
Preface: Kalman Goldstein
Introduction: Brad K. Berner
CHAPTER 1 THE BACKGROUND TO WAR (1895-1898)
Cuba
1.
The Manifesto of Montecristi (March 25, 1895)
2. James Creelman – An Atrocity Story (New York
World, May 17, 1896)
3. General Valeriano Weyler’s Order of Reconcentration (October 21, 1896)
4. Richard Harding Davis “The Death of Rodríguez” (New York
Journal, February 2, 1897)
5. The Olivette Incident (January-February 1897)
6. Generals Máximo Gómez and Calixto García
God, Country, and Liberty (September 20, 1897)
7. The Rescue of Evangelina Cisneros (October 10, 1897)
Philippines
8. Andrés Bonifacio
The Duties of the Sons of the People (1896)
9. Emilio Aguinaldo
Manifesto to the Philippine People (October 31, 1896)
10. Governor General Camilo Polavieja’s Proclamation (December 23, 1896)
11. The Pact of Biak-na-Bató (December 1897)
12. Emilio Aguinaldo on Early U.S./Filipino Relations (September 23, 1899)
13. U.S. Consul E. Spencer Pratt’s Letter (April 28, 1898)
Puerto Rico
14. The Club Boriquen Calls for Independence (
Puerto Rico [New York], March 14, 1895)
15. Luis Muñoz Rivera Supports Autonomy (April 14, 1897)
Spain
16. Francesco Pi y Margall, Federalist Leader, Calls for Cuban Independence (
El Nuevo Régimen, March 14, 1896)
17. Vicente Blasco Ibañez Opposes Spain’s Cuban Policy (
El Pueblo, September 28, December 31, 1896)
18. Spanish Liberal Party
Manifesto to the Nation (June 24, 1897)
19. Carlists Demand Government Stand Up against the Yankees (
El Correo Español, January 27, 1898)
20. Admiral Pascual Cervera Forecasts Spain’s Defeat in the Coming War (January 30, 1898)
21. “Spain Does Not Scare” (
El Imparcial, March 15, 1898)
22. Admiral José Beránger Predicts Spain’s Victory (
Heraldo, April 6, 1898)
23. José Martínez Ruiz ‘Azorín’ Satirizes Spain’s Policy (
Madrid Cómico, April 10, 1898)
United States
24. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Supports U.S. Intervention in Cuba (February 20, 1896)
25. Frederick Funston – Filibustering in Cuba
26. Joseph Pulitzer Demands U.S. Intervention in Cuba (February 13, 1897)
27. Speaker of the House Thomas B. Reed “Empire Can Wait” (December 4, 1897)

CHAPTER 2 FAILED DIPLOMACY (1896-1898)
A Diplomatic Incident (February 9, 1898)
28.
The De Lôme Letter (February 9, 1898)
The Maine (February 15, 1898)
29. Captain Charles Sigsbee’s Cable on the
Maine Explosion (February 15, 1898)
30. John D. Long, U.S. Secretary of the Navy, on the
Maine Explosion (February 16, 1898)
31. The U.S. Court of Inquiry’s Report on the
Maine Explosion (March 21, 1898)
32. Spain’s Report on the
Maine Explosion (March 22, 1898)
33. The New York
World on the Maine Explosion (February 17, 1898)
34. Albert Shaw Supports Intervention in Cuba (
American Monthly Review of Reviews, April 1898)
35.
El País, a Madrid Newspaper, Criticizes Bacon-Eating Yankee ‘Pigs’ (March 1, 1898)
36. Walter Wellman, Chicago
Times-Herald Reporter, on U.S. Media Lies (February 19, 1898)
37. E. L. Godkin, Editor of
The Nation, on Yellow Journalism (March 3, 1898)
The Rush to War
38. Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt’s Order to Commodore George Dewey (February 25, 1898)
39. John D. Long, Secretary of the Navy, on Theodore Roosevelt’s Order to Commodore Dewey (February 26, 1898)
40. Senator Redfield Proctor’s Speech (March 17, 1898)
41. President William McKinley’s Ultimatum to Spain (March 26-28, 1898)
42. Spain’s Council of Ministers Replies to President William McKinley’s Ultimatum (March 31, 1898)
43.
The Great Powers Note (April 6, 1898)
44. President William McKinley’s War Message to Congress (April 11, 1898)
45. U.S. Congressional Joint Resolution for the Recognition of the Independence of Cuba and Authorizing the Use of U.S. Armed Forces (April 19, 1898)
46. Spain Declares War (April 23, 1898)
47. The United States Declares War (April 25, 1898)

CHAPTER 3 THE WAR AT HOME
HomefrontSpain
Divided Viewpoints
48.
La Correspondencia Militar, a Military Newspaper in Madrid, Calls for War (April 20, 1898)
49. Council of Commanders Meeting of Admiral Pascual Cervera’s Fleet (April 20, 1898)
50. The Opinion of Captain Víctor Concas (April 20, 1898)
51. The Generals Send Admiral Pascual Cervera’s Fleet (April 24, 1898)
52. The Catholic Archbishop of Madrid Supports the War Effort (April 23, 1898)
Reactions to Military Defeats
53. The Riot of Gijón (May 3-4, 1898)
54. Proclamation of a State of War in Barcelona (May 10, 1898)
55.
El Noticiero Universal, a Barcelona Newspaper, Comments on Spain’s Governmental Crisis (May 15, 1898)
56.
El Correo Español, a Carlist Madrid Newspaper, Claims Spain’s Soldiers Are Superior (June 4, 1898)
57. Spain’s Socialist Workers Party Calls for Solidarity between Spanish and American Workers in Opposing the War (June 10, 1898)
58. Admiral Manuel de la Cámara and His Fleet Are Ordered to the Philippines (June 15, 1898)
59.
El Liberal, a Madrid Newspaper, Criticizes the Government (July 4, 1898)
60. Spain’s Socialist Workers Party Demands Peace (July 9, 1898)
61. Francisco Fernández Villegas “Zeda” Satirizes the Spanish Public’s Attitude (July 9, 1898)
62. El Fomento de Trabajo Nacional Analyzes the Roots of Spain’s Defeat (August 5, 1898)
HomefrontUnited States
Mobilizing Society for War
63. Henry Watterson “The Right of Our Might” (April 20, 1898)
64. Charles Dawes, Comptroller of the Currency,
Diary (April 22, 1898)
65. President William McKinley’s Call for Volunteers (April 23, 1898)
66. Lieutenant Colonel Grant Squires “Experiences of a War Censor” (
Atlantic Monthly, March 1899)
67. Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt “Raising the Regiment” (
The Rough Riders, 1899)
68. H. C. Thompson, 2
nd Oregon Infantry, Mobilizing for the Philippines
69. Carl Sandburg, 6
th Illinois Infantry, Goes to War
70. Major General Nelson Miles Reports from Tampa, Florida (June 4, 1898)
71. Richard Harding Davis “The Rocking-Chair Period of the War”
72. Initiation on the USS
Oregon
73. “The Cowboy’s Lament,” a Poem by One of Those Who Stayed at Home
74. Dr. John Claiborne at Camp Thomas
The Debate at Home
75. Professor Charles Norton of Harvard Protests the War (June 23, 1898)
76. Walter H. Page, Editor of the
Atlantic Monthly, on the War’s Effects (June 1898)
77. William James, Psychologist and Brother of Henry James, Opposes the War (June 15, 1898)
78. The Churches and the War (May 1898)
African-Americans
79. An African-American Supports the War in a Letter from Los Angeles (April 23, 1898)
80. George W. Prioleau, Chaplain of the 9
th U.S. Cavalry, on Racism (May 13, 1898)
81. Theophilus G. Steward, Chaplain of the 25
th U.S. Infantry, Says the War Will Help the Black Man (May 28, 1898)
82. A Letter from Tampa, Florida, on Prejudice against African-American Soldiers (June 4, 1898)
83. R. B. Montgomery, Editor of the
Wisconsin Weekly Advocate, on Pragmatic Reasons to Fight (July 9, 1898)
84. Edward E. Cooper, Editor of the
Colored American, Says Blacks Will Benefit (July 23, 1898)
85. The 3
rd North Carolina Infantry – Disgruntled at Not Having the Opportunity to Fight (October 5, 1898)
86. Booker T. Washington Extols the Bravery of African-American Soldiers in the War (October 16, 1898)
87. The Mutiny of the 6
th Virginia Infantry
88. “The Black Troops in Cuba,” a Poem by Paul Lawrence Dunbar
89. “Santiago de Wilmington,” a Poem by F. B. Coffin (January 7, 1899)
90. “The Black Man’s Burden,” a Poem by H. T. Johnson (April 1899)

CHAPTER 4 THE WAR IN CUBA
Blockades and Espionage
91. The Correspondence between Governor General Ramón Blanco and General Máximo Gómez
92. Stephen Crane on the Blockade of Cuba (New York
World, May 9, 1898)
93. The Law of War Prizes
94. Lieutenant Andrew Rowan Takes a Message to García (April 23-May 11,1898)
95. Lieutenant Richmond Pearson Hobson and the
Merrimac (June 3, 1898)
The Santiago Campaign
Landing in Cuba
96. Stephen Crane on the Marines at Guantánamo (February 1899)
97. Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt Steals a Train and a Ship
98. Richard Harding Davis – The Aserraderos Conference (June 20, 1898)
99. Sergeant Horace W. Bivins, 10
th U.S. Cavalry, Writes from Santiago, Cuba (June 21, 1898)
100. Charles Post, Private in 71
st New York Infantry, on Landing in Cuba (June 22-26, 1898)
The Battle of Las Guásimas (June 24, 1898)
101. Report by Colonel Leonard Wood, Commander of the Rough Riders
102. Account by Lieutenant José Müller y Tejeiro
The Battle of El Caney (July 1, 1898)
103. Eyewitness Account by Photographer John C. Hemment
104. Eyewitness Account by First Sergeant M. W. Saddler, 25
th U.S. Infantry
105. Account by Lieutenant José Müller y Tejeiro
The Battles of the San Juan Heights (July 1, 1898)
106. Account by Lieutenant José Müller y Tejeiro
107. The Death of Bucky O’Neill, Captain in the Rough Riders
108. The 71
st New York Infantry’s Cowardice
109. Richard Harding Davis – The Myth of San Juan Hill
110. Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt – The Battle of Kettle Hill
111. Sergeant E. L. Baker, 10
th U.S. Cavalry, Diary
112. John R. Conn, Corporal 24
th U.S. Infantry – The Assault on San Juan Hill
113. George Kennan on the Wounded
114. Colonel Federico Escario’s Column by Lieutenant José Müller y Tejeiro
The Naval Battle of Santiago (July 3, 1898)
115. Romero Robledo, Conservative Member of Spain’s Cortes, Demands Admiral Pascual Cervera’s Squadron Be Sent into Action (June 23, 1898)
116. Eyewitness Account by Captain Víctor Concas, Commanding the Spanish Flagship
Infanta María Teresa
117. Eyewitness Account by Captain Henry C. Taylor, Commanding the Battleship
Indiana
118. Eyewitness Account by Miguel López, Pilot of the Spanish Flagship
Infanta María Teresa
119. Schley’s Loop by Captain John C. Philip, Commanding the Battleship
Texas
120. The Destruction of Captain Fernando Villaamil’s Torpedo Boat Flotilla
121. Eyewitness Account by Captain José Paredes, Commanding the
Cristóbal Colón
122. The Rescue of Admiral Pascual Cervera by Lieutenant Harry P. Huse on the
Gloucester
123. Admiral William T. Sampson’s Cable
Disease and Capitulation
124. Lieutenant Colonel Theodore Roosevelt Criticizes Major General William Shafter (July 5, 1898)
125. Frederick Ramsden, British Consul at Santiago, Cuba, on the Refugees at El Caney (
Diary, July 5 - 8, 1898)
126. Private Charles Post, 71
st New York Infantry, on Disease at Santiago, Cuba
127. Lieutenant General Arsenio Linares, Commanding Spanish Forces at Santiago, Cuba, Concludes Surrender Is Inevitable (July 12, 1898)
128.
The Santiago Capitulation Agreement (July 16, 1898)
129. Cuban Insurgent General Calixto García’s Letter of Protest (July 17, 1898)
130. The
Round Robin Letter Demands U.S. Troops Be Taken Out of Cuba (August 3, 1898)

CHAPTER 5 THE WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES
The Philippines
131. Governor General Basilio Augustín’s
Manifesto (April 23, 1898)
132. Apolinario Mabini’s
Open Letter to All Filipinos (April 1898)
133. The Hong Kong Junta’s
Proclamation (April 1898)
The Naval Battle of Manila Bay (May 1, 1898)
134. Report by Admiral Patricio Montojo at Subig Bay (April 25-29, 1898)
135. Admiral Patricio Montojo’s Battle Report
136. Commodore George Dewey’s Cable to the McKinley Administration (May 1, 1898)
137. Manila Archbishop Nozaleda’s
Circular on the Battle of Manila Bay (May 8, 1898)
Dewey and the Germans at Manila
138. Admiral George Dewey’s Cable to John Long, Secretary of the Navy (June 12, 1898)
139. Admiral George Dewey Threatens War with Germany (July 10, 1898)
140. Prince Bernhard von Bülow, German Foreign Minister, on U.S.-German Relations in the Philippines
U.S./Filipino Relations
141. Major General Wesley Merritt’s Instructions from the McKinley Administration (May 19, 1898)
142. Filipino Insurgent Representative José Alejandrino’s Letter (May 19, 1898)
143. Emilio Aguinaldo’s Decrees (May 24, 1898)
144. Secretary of the Navy John Long’s Cable to Admiral George Dewey (May 26, 1898)
145. Secretary of State William Day Cables E. Spencer Pratt, U.S. Consul in Singapore (June 18, 1898)
146. Emilio Aguinaldo’s
Proclamation (August 6, 1898)
The Arranged Battle and Capitulation of Manila (August 13-14, 1898)
147. Brigadier General Thomas Anderson on the Negotiated Battle of Manila
148. Frank Millett – The Battle of Manila Begins (August. 13, 1898)
149. Eyewitness Account by Lieutenant Charles H. Hilton, 1
st Colorado Infantry
150.
The Articles of the Capitulation of Manila (August 14, 1898)
151. Major General Wesley Merritt’s Proclamation (August 14, 1898)

CHAPTER 6 THE WAR IN PUERTO RICO
Before the Invasion
152. Governor General Manuel Macías Declares a State of War (April 22, 1898)
153. The Puerto Rican Insular Government’s
Proclamation (April 22, 1898)
The Bombardment of San Juan (May 12, 1898)
154. Admiral William Sampson’s Report (May 12, 1898)
155. Governor General Manuel Macías’ Version (May 27, 1898)
Viewpoints
156. Amos K. Fiske Supports Taking Puerto Rico (
New York Times, July 11, 1898)
157. Eugenio Hostos, Puerto Rican Educator, Prefers Independence (July 22, 1898)
158. Antonio Mattei Lluveras Supports a U.S. Invasion (July 25, 1898)
159. Ramón Betances Warns of U.S. Intention to Colonize Puerto Rico (July 1898)
The Invasion
160. Captain Ángel Rivero Méndez,
Diary (July 27-August 14, 1898)
161. Colonel Juan Camó’s
General Order (July 26, 1898)
162. Associated Press Release on Conquest of Guánica, Puerto Rico (July 25, 1898)
163. Major General Nelson Miles’
Proclamation (July 28, 1898)
164. Lieutenant Rafael Colorado’s Account of the Situation near Yauco (July 25-26, 1898)
165. Richard Harding Davis Recounts How Stephan Crane Took a Town (August 3, 1898)
166. Captain Harry Hall, 16
th Pennsylvania Infantry, Recounts the Death of Commander Rafael Illescas at the Battle of Coamo (August 9, 1898)
167. Carl Sandburg Recounts His Experience at War

CHAPTER 7 NEGOTIATING THE PEACE (JULY 18 – DECEMBER 10, 1898)
168.
The Armistice Protocol (August 12, 1898)
169. Whitelaw Reid, U.S. Peace Commissioner,
Diary (September 16, 1898)
170. President William McKinley’s Instructions to the U.S. Peace Commission (September 16, 1898)
171.
The Treaty of Paris (December 10, 1898)
172. The Spanish Delegation’s
Memorandum (December 10, 1898)

CHAPTER 8 POST-WAR DEVELOPMENTS
Cuba
173. Pedro López de Castillo’s Letter (August 21, 1898)
174. Captain W. B. Roberts, 23
rd Kansas Infantry, on Thwarting the Color Line in Cuba (October 3, 1898)
175.
The Platt Amendment (March 2, 1901)
Philippines
176. McKinley Administration Orders No Joint Occupation of Manila with Emilio Aguinaldo’s Forces (August 21, 1898)
177.
The Malolos Constitution (September 1898 – January 1899)
178. President William McKinley’s “
Benevolent AssimilationProclamation (December 21, 1898)
179. Major General Elwell Otis’s First
Proclamation as Military Governor of the Philippines (January 4, 1899)
180. Emilio Aguinaldo Denies U.S. Sovereignty over the Philippines (January 5, 1899)
181. Emilio Aguinaldo Declares an End to Friendly Relations with the Army of the U.S. (January 8, 1899)
182.
Memorandum by Felipe Agoncillo, Representative of the Filipino Nationalist Forces, to the U.S. Senate (January 30, 1899)
183. First Shots of the Filipino-American War (February 4, 1899)
184. President Emilio Aguinaldo’s
Manifesto to the Filipino People (February 5, 1899)
Puerto Rico
185. Captain Ángel Rivero Méndez,
Diary (August 15 – October 23, 1898)
186. President William McKinley’s Instructions to the Commissioners for Puerto Rico (August 26, 1898)
187. James Miller’s Report “No distinction in color” in Puerto Rico (September 10, 1898)
188. José Julio Henna Telegrams President William McKinley (October 18, 1898)
189. A Satire in
La Bruja, a Mayagüez, Puerto Rico Newspaper (November 26, 1898)
190. Henry Carroll’s
Report on the Island of Porto Rico (1899)
Spain
191. Conservative Leader Francisco Silvela Calls for Reforms (August 16, 1898)
192. Pablo Iglesias Defends the Socialist Workers Party’s Anti-War Policy (August 17, 1898)
193. Conservative Senator El Conde de Las Almenas Attacks the Army (September 7, 1898)
194. Eugenio Montero Ríos, President of Spain’s Peace Commission, Comments on Spain’s Defeat (September 20, 1898)
195. Prime Minister Práxedes Mateo Sagasta Defends His Government (February 22, 1899)
196. The Court-Martial Verdict of General José Toral (August 9, 1899)
197. The Court-Martial of Admiral Patricio Montojo (October 10, 1899)
United States
198. Carl Sandburg on Going Home
199. Senator Albert Beveridge Extols American Expansion (September 16, 1898)
200. Charles Denby, Former U.S. Minister to China, Supports Keeping the Philippines (November 1898)
201. Former President Grover Cleveland Opposes U.S. Imperialism (November 9, 1898)
202. Report of the Commission Investigating the War Department (1899)
203. The “Embalmed Beef” Controversy (December 21, 1898)
204. Carl Schurz Opposes U.S. Imperialism (January 4, 1899)
205. Republican Senator George Hoar Opposes the Treaty of Paris (January 9, 1899)
206. Edward Cooper, Editor of the
Colored American Newspaper, on the Philippines (February 11, 1899)
207.
Platform of the Anti-Imperialist League (October 18, 1898)
208. The Schley Court of Inquiry (September 1901)
209. The U.S. Supreme Court Case –
Downes v. Bidwell (1901)