Educational Assessment
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Educational Assessment

Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability
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ISBN-13:
9781483380797
Einband:
WEB PDF
Seiten:
664
Autor:
Robert J. Wright
eBook Typ:
PDF
eBook Format:
WEB PDF
Kopierschutz:
Adobe DRM [Hard-DRM]
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

Grounded in the real world of public schools and students, this engaging, insightful, and highly readable text introduces the inner-workings of K–12 educational assessment.

There has never been a time when it is more important for educators to have an understanding of testing and assessments. Accountability is now a fact of life for all public school educators, and testing is at the core of all educational assessment programs. It is no longer prudent or even possible for educators to ignore this national zeitgeist. 

Educational Assessment: Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability addresses all of the constructs central to understanding the design, construction and evaluation of educational measures. It goes on to provide students with insight into the link between today′s high-stakes testing mandates and the traditions of the past 125 years of "scientific" measurement in the United States. It addresses the problem of understanding and correctly interpreting test scores on local, statewide, national, and international assessments. It also addresses how certain issues such as institutionalized cheating, test preparation, and individual differences among students and their families influence test score outcomes.

Key Features



  • Covers traditional topics in an approachable and understandable way: Reliability, validity, performance assessments, standardized achievement tests, and many more topics are included.

  • Analyzes and interprets "hot-button" issues of today′s complex measurement concerns: The score-gap, high-stakes testing, grade retention, drop-out crises, "academic redshirting,", diversity, family influence, and educational technology, are examined.

  • Relates theory to practice: Each chapter includes relevant real-life examples and case studies to demonstrate how the technical-measurement principles impact those involved.

  • Addresses the needs of diverse students: Issues related to students with special needs and the testing of English Language Learners are discussed.




Ancillaries




  • Instructors′ Resources on CD-Rom include PowerPoint slides, Web resources, suggested answers for each chapter′s discussion questions, and a sample syllabus. The CD also includes Brownstone′s Diploma Test Bank software so that instructors can create, customize, and deliver tests. Qualified instructors can contact Customer Care at 1-800-818-SAGE (7243) from 6am - 5pm PT to request a copy.

  • A web-based Student Study Site at sagepub.com/wrightstudy provides chapter objectives, flash cards, and practice tests.




Intended Audience: Educational Assessment: Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability has been written to meet the needs of students in graduate programs of special education, reading, school counseling, school social work, curriculum supervision, or administration. Providing grounding in all aspects of measurement, this book is perfect for undergraduate and graduate courses such as Educational Tests and Measurements, Assessment in Education, and Student Assessment.

Preface

SECTION ONE: EDUCATIONAL ASSESSMENT IN AMERICA: HISTORY, GOALS, AND APPLICATIONS

1. Issues and Measurement Practices in the Schools

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Accountability, Assessment, and Testing

Why do we Test?

Types and Varieties of Tests

Assumptions Made by Test Developers

Trends in Testing

Law and Testing

Case Law

Educational Ethics and Testing

Summary

Discussion Questions

2. History of Testing in American Education

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Scientific Measurement and Racism

The Next Generation

Single Factor Models

Multiple Factor Models

Contemporary Public Schools

Winds of Change

Summary

Discussion Questions

SECTION TWO: THE MEANING AND QUALITY OF TEST SCORES

3. The Measurement and Description of Variables

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Variables

Central Tendency

Normal Distribution

Variation and Variance

Standard Scores

Variation

Correlation

Summary

Discussion Questions

4. Reliability as a Measure of Test Quality

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Reliability

Internal Consistency

Gains and Losses

Standard Error of Measurement

Factors with an Impact on Reliability

Reliability of Cut Scores

Reliability of Performance Tasks and Criterion Tests

Summary

Discussion Questions

5. Validity as a Measure of Test Quality

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Validity: The Traditional Context of Validity

Contemporary View

Comparison Groups

Test Bias and Fairness

Summary

Discussion Questions

SECTION THREE: TESTING OF STUDENTS BY CLASSROOM TEACHERS

6. Planning and Constructing Classroom Tests

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Testing and Teaching

Formative Tests

Summative Evaluations

Testing Formats

Summary

Discussion Questions

7. Classroom Development and Use of Extended Answer Tests

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Homework

Completion or Short Answer

The Essay Test

Bluffing

Essay Test Format

Essay Grading

The SAT Essay Test

Summary

Discussion Questions

8. Item Selection and Analysis

Issues and Themes

Classroom Testing

A Priori Qualitative Assessment and Analysis of Tests

Item Difficulty Index

Distracter Analysis

Item Analysis with Constructed or Supply Type Items

Discrimination

Computer Adaptive Testing

Item Response Theory (IRT)

Summary

Discussion Questions

9. Performance Assessments

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Assessment and Instruction

Performance Based Assessments

Scoring

Portfolios

Summary

Discussion Questions

10. Grades, Progress Reports, and Report Cards

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Background and History

Purposes of Report Card Grades

Student Grades

Report Card Comments

On-line Report Cards

Report Card Grades for the Gifted

Grades and Students with Special Needs

The Case of Transfer Students

Grade Point Average and Class Rank

Teacher-Parent Conference

Grade Inflation

Promotion and Graduation

Summary

Discussion Questions

SECTION FOUR: TESTING FOR STUDENT LEARNING, TALENT, APTITUDE, AND SPECIAL NEEDS

11. Standardized Measures of Learning

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Explaining Test Scores to Parents

Major Achievement Test Batteries

State Mandated Assessments

Summary

Discussion Questions

12. Testing of Aptitude and Selection

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Aptitude

Scholastic Aptitude and Intelligence

Training of Test Administrators

Tests of Intelligence Administered One-on-One

Tests of Intelligence Administered to Groups

Group Administered Aptitude Tests

Assessment of Talented and Gifted Children

Assessment of Aptitude for College Study

Summary

Discussion Questions

13. Identification of Learning Problems

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Incidence

Informal Screening

Instructional Support Team

Referral, Assessment, and the IEP Committee

Assessment Process

Formal Assessments of Attention and Focus

AD/HD Measurement Scales

Assessments of Reading Problems

Early Reading Tests

Assessments of Language and Speech Problems

Measures for the Identification of Problems Learning Mathematics

Individualized Educational Plan

Accommodations for Children with Disabilities

Summary

Discussion Questions

SECTION FIVE: NO CHILD, TEACHER, OR SCHOOL LEFT BEHIND

14. International, National, and Statewide Testing Programs

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

International Comparisons

Nation’s Report Card

School Assessments

No Child Left Behind

Summary

Discussion Questions

15. Student, Family, and Teacher Factors in Test Scores

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Students

Families

Teachers

Summary

Discussion Questions

16. Test Preparation for Successful Schools

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Accountability Angst

Legal and Ethical Requirements

Marginal Ethics

Successful Schools

Classroom Instruction

Architecture and School Design

Administration

Summary

Discussion Questions

17. Accountability and Evaluation

Issues and Themes

Learning Objectives

Evaluation Overview

Systematic Program Evaluation

Steps in a Systematic Evaluation

Value-added Evaluation

Summary

Discussion Questions

References

Glossary

Index

About the Author