This book provides historical and statistical data outlining injustices against African Americans in the juvenile justice system, the criminal justice system, affirmative action in colleges and universities, reparations, economics, and employment discrimination.
One philosopher identified and defined five types of justice: interpersonal justice, commutative justice, distributive justice, communal justice, and social justice. Moving from the end of slavery to the present, this book discusses how and why African Americans have received less than equal justice in these five areas. This thesis is laid out in chapters discussing the history of race and what some professionals currently call 'modern racism,' higher education, juvenile justice, law enforcement, the military, economics, the reparations for slavery issue, and employment discrimination. Arguments presented include the differential treatments in the law based on gender and race, the false impression about the affirmative action benefits that African Americans allegedly receive in higher education, and the issue of reparations.
Chapter 1 African Americans and Justice: An Introduction
Chapter 2 African Americans and Higher Education
Chapter 3 African American Juveniles and the Justice System
Chapter 4 African Americans, Maltreatment, and Law Enforcement
Chapter 5 African Americans and the Military
Chapter 6 African Americans and Economic Discrimination
Chapter 7 African Americans and Reparations
Chapter 8 African Americans, Employment Discrimination, and Legal Justice
Chapter 9 African Americans and Justice: Summary and Conclusions