A writer once denounced the Lone Star State as "where the Godly could battle 'the devil' on his own ground." Circuit riders and other early preachers confronted dangerous outlaws, Indians, wild animals, and Texas' unpredictable weather. Their stories chronicle bringing one element of civilization to early explorers and settlers. Some fought for Texas independence with a Bible in one hand and a rifle in the other; others worked as drovers and preached along the cattle trails. One served as a deputy sheriff; others, as fort chaplains. European immigrant ministers and Negro preachers formed an unlikely mix in East Texas. The frontier lured them into all the danger, adventure, and challenge of others who faced the "devil in Texas." Circuit riders had preached to all regions of Texas before they "hung up their spurs and went to the camp meeting in the sky."