Beyond the Bubble Test

Beyond the Bubble Test
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How Performance Assessments Support 21st Century Learning
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Linda Darling-Hammond
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Performance assessment is a hot topic in school systems, andeducators continue to analyze its costs, benefits, and feasibilityas a replacement for high-stakes testing. Until now, researchersand policymakers have had to dig to find out what we know and whatwe still have to learn about performance assessment. Beyondthe Bubble Test: How Performance Assessments Support 21st CenturyLearning synthesizes the latest findings in the field, andnot a moment too soon.
Statistics indicate that the United States is in danger offalling behind if it fails to adapt to our changing world. Thememory and recall strategies of traditional testing are no longeradequate to equip our students with the skills they need to excelin the global economy. Instead teachers need to engage students indeeper learning, assessing their ability to use higher-orderskills.

Skills like synthesizing information, understanding evidence,and critical problem-solving are not achieved when we teach tomultiple-choice exams. Examples in Beyond the BubbleTest paint a useful picture of how schools can begin tosupplement traditional tests with something that works better. Thisbook provides new perspectives on current performance assessmentresearch, plus an incisive look at what's possible at thelocal and state levels.

Linda Darling-Hammond, with a team of leading scholars, bringtogether lessons learned, new directions, and solid recommendationsinto a single, readily accessible compendium. Beyond theBubble Test situates the current debate on performanceassessment within the context of testing in the United States. Thiscomprehensive resource also looks beyond our U.S. borders toSingapore, Hong Kong, and other places whose reform-mindedness canserve as an example to us.
Acknowledgments vii

The Authors ix

1 Introduction: The Rationale and Context for Performance Assessment 1
Linda Darling-Hammond

Part one : Through a Looking Glass: Performance Assessment Past, Present, and Future 15

2 Looking Back: Performance Assessment in an Era of Standards-Based Educational Accountability 17
Brian Stecher

3 Where We Are Now: Lessons Learned and Emerging Directions 53
Raymond Pecheone and Stuart Kahl with the Assistance of Jillian Chingos and Ann Jaquith

4. Reaching Out: International Benchmarks for Performance Assessment 93
Linda Darling-Hammond with the Assistance of Laura Wentworth

Part two : Advances in Performance Assessment: Assessing and Supporting Learning 131

5 Performance Assessment: The State of the Art 133
Suzanne Lane

6 Adapting Performance Assessments for English Language Learners 185
Jamal Abedi

7 Supporting Teacher Learning through Performance Assessment 207
Linda Darling-Hammond and Beverly Falk

Part three : Policy and Performance Assessment: Developing Systems That Can Work 237

8 A New Conceptual Framework for Cost Analysis 239
Lawrence O. Picus, Frank Adamson, William Montague, and Margaret Owens

9 Investing in Assessments of Deeper Learning: The Costs and Benefits of Tests That Help Students Learn 259
Barry Topol, John Olson, Ed Roeber, Linda Darling-Hammond, and Frank Adamson

10 Building Systems of Assessment for Deeper Learning 277
David T. Conley and Linda Darling-Hammond

11 Concluding Thoughts: Creating Next-Generation Assessments That Last 311
Linda Darling-Hammond, Frank Adamson, and Thomas Toch

Appendix A: State Performance Tasks 323

Appendix B: New Approaches to Performance Assessment 353

Appendix C: A Framework for Measuring the Costs, Expenditures, and Benefits of Performance Assessment 363

Appendix D: Spending for Interim Testing at the Local District Level 377

Notes 383

References 387

Name Index 423

Subject Index 429

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