The Disempowered Development of Tibet in China
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The Disempowered Development of Tibet in China

A Study in the Economics of Marginalization
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ISBN-13:
9780739134399
Einband:
Ebook
Seiten:
462
Autor:
Andrew Martin Fischer
Serie:
Studies in Modern Tibetan Culture
eBook Typ:
Adobe Digital Editions
Kopierschutz:
Adobe DRM [Hard-DRM]
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

This book explores the synergy between development and conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China from the mid-1990s onward, when rapid economic growth occurred alongside a particularly assimilationist policy approach. Based on accessible economic analysis and extensive interdisciplinary fieldwork, it represents one of the only macro-level and systemic analyses of its kind in the scholarship on Tibet, and also holds much interest for those interested in China and in development and conflict more generally.
Series:

Studies in Modern Tibetan Culture, Lexington Books


Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University




Since the central government of China started major campaigns for western development in the mid-1990s, the economies of the Tibetan areas in Western China have grown rapidly and living standards have improved. However, grievances and protests have also intensified, as dramatically evidenced by the protests that spread across most Tibetan areas in spring 2008 and by the more recent wave of self-immolation protests that started in 2011. This book offers a detailed and careful exploration of this synergy between development and conflict in Tibet from the mid-1990s onwards, when rapid economic growth has occurred in tandem with a particularly assimilationist approach of integrating Tibet into China.

Fischer argues that the intensified economic integration of Tibet into regional and national development strategies on these assimilationist terms, within a context of continued political disempowerment, and through the massive channeling of subsidies through Han Chinese dominated entities based outside the Tibetan areas, has accentuated various dynamics of subordination and marginalization faced by Tibetans of all social strata. Whether or not these dynamics are intended to be discriminatory, they effectively accentuate the discriminatory, assimilationist and disempowering characteristics of development, even while producing considerable improvements in the material consumption of local Tibetans. In particular, strong cultural, linguistic and political biases intensify ethnically-exclusionary dynamics among middle and upper strata of the Tibetan labor force, which is problematic considering the rapid shift of Tibetans out of agriculture and towards the highly subsidy-dependent sectors of the economy, especially in urban areas.

The combination of these disempowering dynamics with the sheer speed of dislocating and disembedding social change provides important insights into recent tensions given that it has accentuated insecurity while restricting the ability of Tibetan communities to adapt in autonomous and self-determined ways.

The study represents one of the only macro-level and systemic analyses of its kind in the scholarship on Tibet, based on accessible economic analysis and extensive interdisciplinary fieldwork. It also carries much interest for those interested in China and in the interactions between development, inequality, exclusion and conflict more generally.
Preface


Acknowledgments


Chapter One: Introduction: The Disempowered Development of Tibet in China


Chapter Two: Historical Legacies of the Modern Development of Tibet


Chapter Three: Population Foundations of Marginalization in Tibet


Chapter Four: Instituting Economic Growth and Marginalization in Tibet


Chapter Five: The Great Transformation of Tibet? Rapid Labor Transitions, Polarization and the Emerging Fault Lines of Stratification in Urban Tibet


Chapter Six: The Education-Employment Nexus of Exclusion in Tibet


Chapter Seven: Subsistence Capacity and the Material Foundations of Resistance


Chapter Eight: Boycotts and Religious Networks: counter-strategies of integration


Chapter Nine: Conclusion: From Polarization to Protest in Contemporary Tibet

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